Tillie Logan

Accessibility (3 Units)


      As with any student in this functional range, assessment must be individualized.  The teacher must determine what criteria will best reflect attainment of specific goals.  Criteria used for this plan may include the following:

• Eye contact with switch

• Physical attempts to activate switch

• Physical response to sound/screen changes (e.g. startle response, turning toward screen/sound, smiling frowning, etc.)

• Eye contact with screen

• Number of independent activations within a predetermined time period.

Data Collection

      Progress within this population is almost universally slow.  
Therefore, data collected on a daily, or even weekly basis is often both time consuming and wasteful.  It eats up teacher time that could be spent with the student and provides little, if anything by way of meaningful information.  Baseline data is collected on areas of criteria identified for the first one or two sessions.  Data can then be collected at rates of eight to nine-week intervals.  This will provide sufficient feedback to the teacher to evaluate criteria and monitor the setup of necessary environmental conditions.  An alternative to this method may be noting specific data of importance as it occurs.  It is recommended that teachers using this technique list only achieved aspects of criteria rather than the multitude of negatives that the student may receive.

      Teachers should monitor for very small signs that progress is being made.  Document progress observed, even if it does not meet the pre- set criteria the teacher started with.

Follow-up Activities:

• Hook up a single access switch to an environmental control unit to turn on and off various electric appliances (lights, fans, mixers, blenders, radios, tape players, from the computer.

• Hook up a single access switch to activate various battery activated items toys that make noise or light up, tape/CD players, radios, etc.

      1. The teacher will need frequent access to a computer which has 
single switch     hardware, sound card, and software that is activated by 
a single switch.

      2. The teacher will need to experiment with the kind of switch (puff, 
motion      sensor, motion detection, etc.) and the placement of that 
switch to determine the       combination that is easiest for their 
specific student to activate.  Placement of the       monitor and lighting 
conditions are also important considerations.  A darkened   room in 
which the only light source is the monitor itself may be the best        
environment for your particular student.  Consultation with physical 
and   occupational therapists when making this determination can prove 
to be       beneficial.

      3. The learning environment should be as isolated as possible from 
other       activities and students to help eliminate, as much as is 
feasible, any potential       distractions.

      4. The teacher, optimally, should work with the student using a one-
on-one ratio      for at least 15 minutes per day.  Other students may 
watch the activity but care   should be taken that these observers are 
not serving as a distraction to the       student being focused on.


      1. Load the program on the computer and guide the student to the 
desired     activation sequence.  The teacher may physically guide the 
student to the    activation through physical cueing or hand over hand 
manipulation.  Note: Verbal   cueing is not used in this plan.  The 
focus student is severely impaired.       Language cues require that the 
student first process the verbal input and then act   upon it.  
Consequently, verbal cues may act as a distraction for the student 
rather      than provide necessary/helpful information.

2.  Once the switch has been activated monitor student for response to the sound/screen.  The teacher may react to the screen with single words or short phrases but it is recommended that the teacher keep language to a minimum.  As much as possible, allow the sound and screen to be the reinforcer, thereby allowing the student to focus on the screen rather than on the teacher's language or on the teacher.

      3. Fade cueing a student becomes more proficient. Give as little 
cueing as   possible throughout the exercise.  Adjust switch placement 
as necessary.

  Typical Accommodations:

• Provide student with additional time to complete the writing task

• Reduce the amount of writing expected

• Provide student with template for writing

• Photocopy peer notes

• Provide student with reader and/or writer

• Provide student with alternate activity or task

  Typical Accommodations while using assistive technology:

• Provide student with standard word processor with spell and grammar checker with necessary access method (enlarged keyboard)

• Provide student with software applications that use graphics to support written output

• Provide student with talking word processor software

• Provide student with word prediction software to support sentence construction